Jupiter has a tendency to take comets that come too close and fling them out of the solar system. The few that do end up on Earth-crossing orbits don’t stay there for long. When the solar system formed about 4.6 billion years ago, shards of calcium- and aluminum-rich minerals stuck together, building ever-larger pebbles and boulders that smashed together and assembled the rocky planets, including Earth. Electron microscopes are typically produced by various manufacturers around the world.


The 19th century saw breakthroughs occur after observing networks developed across several countries. After the development of the computer in the latter half of the 20th century, breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved.

Heat from the young sun vaporized any ice that dared to come near the inner planets. Earth’s relatively feeble gravity couldn’t grab on to the water vapor, or any other gas for that matter. Water regulates the climate, shapes and reshapes the landscape and is essential to life.

The belief that science has had a positive effect on society correlated strongly with education. Of those with a high school education or less, less than half said that science has had a mostly positive effect on society. That rose to 72 percent among those who completed college and 79 percent for those with a graduate degree. From 2016 to 2021, the portion of US residents who felt science had a mostly positive effect on society hovered within three points of 70 percent. Eight percent now feel that science has had a mostly negative impact, up from a low of just 3 percent in January 2019. The drop is most pronounced for self-identified Republicans and those without a college education.

The social side of science

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Both of these comets are part of a community known as Jupiter family comets. They originated in the Kuiper belt, the ring of icy debris beyond Neptune where Pluto lives. The gravity of first Neptune and then Jupiter gradually nudged these comets into relatively short orbits that bring them closer to the sun. All previous D/H measurements were of comets that hail from the far more distant Oort cloud, a shell of ice fragments that envelops the solar system.